DRT  Legal  Solutions

(Debts Recovery Tribunal Legal Solutions) is an India based

Law Firm specializing in DRT, Securitisation, Sarfaesi, IBC, NCLT, Borrowers and Guarantors Solutions in Debts Recovery Tribunals,

Pioneers in Counter-claims and Damage Suits based on Law of Torts and Law of Damages 

Phones (India) - Mobile - +91-9691103689, Off. & Res. +91-731-4049358

E-mail :- ramkishandrt@gmail.com  Web Site :- www.drtsolutions.com

 DRT Interactions with Clients, Debt Recovery Tribunal

HomeContentsProducts & ServicesFrequently Asked QuestionsUseful Article-BorrowersUseful Article-GuarantorsRBI GuidelinesNotes-Law of TortsNotes-DamagesMiniArticles-Letters to EditorUseful Interactions with Clients & VisitorsSecuritisation Act-CommentsAbout Us-DRT SolutionsUseful Tips for DRT Advocates|| 138 NI Act Cheque Dishonour Cognizance Acquittal | NCLT, National Company Law Tribunal, BIFR, SICA  |  Video Interview - BS Malik, Sr. Supreme Court AdvocateLegal Forum of IndiaSuccess & Results of Our GuidanceDRT Orders in favour of Borrowers & GuarantorsNPA, Debt due, Rehabilitation of Sick SME IndustriesOur Replies to Queries  on Current DRT Matters, Court Decisions etc.Measure of damages & Calculations under Torts & ContractsVideo Interview - GC Garg, Ex-Senior Bank OfficialSolar Healing, Yoga, Projector, Rebirth etc.Swami Ramdev, Yoga Guru, Cure for All Diseases, Medical Science RevolutionCourt Technologies IT Presentation Video ArgumentsArchiveDRT Solutions Weekly Mail for Borrowers & Guarantors   All India DRT Conference 2011 at IndoreArticle by Ram Kishan on Management & Technology in Indian JudiciarySARFAESI Securitisation Securitization Actar SA NPADRT Judgments Favourable / Useful to Borrowers  DRT Solutions - Site Map for Borrowers & GuarantorsTransform India with Modi-DRT Solutions SuggestionsLaughter Yoga by Ram Kishan, IndoreDr Kataria Indore Visit - Plan, Progress & Record  Keto Diet Vegan I.F.- Personal Experience Age 79 Yrs

Weekly Mails - 1-10  11-20  21-30  31-40  41-50  51-60  61-70  71-80 81-90 91-100 101-110 111-120 121-130 131-140 141-150 151-160 161-170 171-180 181-190 191-200 201-210 211-220 221-230 231-240 241-250 251-260  261-270  271-280 281-290 291-300 301-310 311-320 321-330 331-340 341-350 351-360 361-370 371-380 381-390 391-400 401-410 411-Latest

 

Expert in:- DRT, Counterclaim, securitization, debt recovery tribunal, NCLT  matters

 

 

 

Google

DRT Cases particularly those who have just received notices u/s 13(2) or 13(4) will be greatly benefited if they ring to us at Mob - 9691103689 (from 11AM to 6 PM on weekdays:- You get instantaneous advice on the said mobile no.

Best Approach in DRTs for Borrowers & Guarantors :-  (1) If you are our client, our consultation is available to you at any time on 24/7 basis. (2) We encourage you to acquire basic knowledge so that you may interact with us as well as your advocate properly. (3) We insist that you must always be present in the Court along with your advocate. You get instantaneous advice on our mobile no. 9691103689 .

Safeguards under Sec 14 of Sarfaesi Act - Pl contact us on phone as soon as you received notice under Sec 13(2) of Sarfaesi Act, we shall advice you for necessary precautions and safeguards.

For reference of such judgments please click DRT Judgments Favourable / Useful to Borrowers

Our Client wins in Securitisation Appeal against 4 Banks in DRT – amount involved nearly Rs. 90 crores and a tooth & nail fight of 4 years

Entire Judgment reproduced vide link DRT Orders in favour of Borrowers & Guarantors

 

Our Weekly Mails are DRT Guide and gold mine of practical information for the borrowers and guarantors :- The visitors of this web site particularly Borrowers and Guarantors will be immensely benefited by our weekly mails, all previous issues from 1st one till the last one may be viewed by clicking Drt Solutions Weekly Mail for Borrowers & Guarantors  Separate web pages have been created to contain these mails in batches of 10 so that pages open up fast. These mails are DRT Guide and gold mine of information on current topics giving lot of practical suggestions and comments. Any new comer to this site must go through all the weekly mails right from the issue no 1 to the latest. If possible please spread the reference of this web site and the weekly mail among the persons, borrowers and guarantors who are the bank victims. If anyone desires to get these mails regularly, he may write to us for inclusion of his e-mail ID in the regular mailing list. The weekly mail is issued on every Friday morning 6 AM. The particular issue of the weekly mail is first published on the web site and then mails are sent. These weekly mails have become quite popular among the borrowers and guarantors in the country as we are getting huge no of mails appreciating the same. We welcome suggestions for improvements as well as the topics on which more information is required.

Important Announcement - Video Arguments presented in Indian Court for the First Time :- We are pleased to announce that on 10th October 2007, proposed 'Computer Presentation' was held for the first time in the country by Mr. Ram Kishan before Hon'ble District Judge, Indore and the 'Video Arguments' were submitted and shown to the said Judge on 15.10.07. Thus a history has been made in the Judicial Management in our country. We have prepared two DVDs, one showing the method and system for such presentation, its advantages with a practical application. Another DVD showing the actual presentation before the District Judge, Indore on 10th October 2007. we have prepared an article titled 'Computer Presentation & Video Arguments' vide click here Court Technologies IT Presentation Video Arguments

DVDs containing Video Record of DRT Conference at Indore and Chennai:- All the proceedings were video recorded and the DVDs containing the same are available. Any one desiring to have the DVDs may send through e-mail their postal address, name of the company, and if possible details of the pending DRT case or Securitisation case and the amount involved, name of concerned person and his contact details including phone nos etc. to us. During these conferences, eminent DRT experts using PowerPoint Presentation dealt with all the aspects of Bank Litigations and Borrowers Defence. The participants from all over the country were highly impressed and benefited from the knowledge thus gained.

Important Victory of Our Client against Bank:- One of our important clients at Chandigarh who filed damage suit of Rs. 1825 crores against a public sector Bank on 13.01.05 registered an important victory on 03.03.07 when the Court waived the entire court fee despite all opposition by the defendant Bank. The alleged dues of the Bank are Rs. 30 crores. Since the damages are much more than the alleged claim of the bank, no recovery action can be executed till the said damage suit is finally decided. The usual delay in the litigation does not affect our client as the damages are increasing day by day due to interest charges at rate which is much higher than the increase in the alleged claim of the bank. The said damage suit was drafted by us and all necessary advice and guidance was provided on all dates of proceedings.

Important Tip to Old and New Visitors:- A visit to new page Synopsis Video Interview - BS Malik, Sr. Supreme Court Advocate will be highly useful. You may take out the print and study the same. Listening to the video interview will be further useful. You may select the clips for replay for discussions with your colleagues as well as the advocates

DRT, drtsolutions, Debt Recovery Tribunal, DRT matters, DRT WS, DRT Legal Opinions, DRT Arguments, DRT Documents, Appellate DRT, Bank litigations, Securitisation, Counter-claims, NPAs Settlements, checking of bank accounts and documents etc., expertize in all these matters past 14 years being a Leading Law Firm. Legal BPO and offshore BPO is our new activity for which we have launched new web site www.usindolegal.com

 

Highlights:- All problems of Debt Recovery Tribunals i.e. DRT and Securitisation Act are tackled by us. People from all over the country are phoning us, then visiting and getting their problems solved. Please visit Home Page and other Pages also

Please click the item below to have the details:-

Interactions with the management of an Industrial House which has   borrowed Rs. 324 crores from banks and FIs

Brief Report on Interactions during last Mumbai and Delhi visits

Interactions with Mr. Anand Ahuja, Attorney based at New York

Video CD containing Interview of Mr. B.S. Malik, the Supreme Court Advocate as well as Our Client available from us:- This video interview will be immensely useful to industrialists, borrowers, guarantors and bank litigants in DRTs. 

Our Client files damage suit of Rs. 1825 Crores against a bank and a financial institution in Chandigarh:- Our Client, an eminent Supreme Court Advocate (practice more than 25 years in Supreme Court) has filed a damage suit of Rs. 1825 Crores in Chandigarh on 13.01.05 against a bank and a financial institution. The said damage suit was drafted by us and it runs in 118 pages having documents of 537 pages. In a video interview lasting more than 30 minutes on 23.01.05, the said Mr. Malik appreciated our legal concepts, our drafting and our knowledge and experience about application of law of torts to banking, industrial sickness, drt, counter-claim, securitisation act and calculations of damages.

Our Computer Cell for checking of Accounts has started functioning:- Our Accounts Cell headed by an ex-Bank auditor (experience 38 years) has started functioning. You get your entire account checked up and certified by him. Invariably in all cases, the accounts filed by the banks are defective and illegal and thus the very debt due for the purpose of DRT and Securitisation becomes questionable requiring rework and refiling, a difficult task for the banks and financial institutions. Please contact us for the details and charges through e-mail ramkishan@drtsolutions.com  

horizontal rule

Recent Interactions with the Clients & Visitors

 

(1) One of the visitors from Mumbai contacted us on phone and has sent his documents on 24.01.03 for our legal opinion.

(2) We have completed full fledged assignment for a Delhi party and sent complete draft on 22.01.03.

(3) We have received the documents from a Kolhapur party on 10.01.03 for legal opinion.

(4) Parties rang from Chandigarh, Delhi and Ludhiana and desired clarifications on phone. One of visitors of our site rang from Delhi on 4.10.02 and discussed the various points on our 'Letter to Editor' titled 'Lenders' Liability Bill' published in the Financial Express dated 4.10.02.

(5)    A seniour advocate from Delhi visited us on 14.10.02. He handles insurance cases. He appreciated our approach.

(6)    A seniour Chartered Accountant from Mumbai rang us on 15.10.02. He has handled several cases for settlement with the bankers. Now most of his remaining clients are involved with legal battle and intend to file counter-claims in DRT.

(7)    One of our clients which has filed the counter-claim of Rs. 1864 crores against a public sector bank has received the reply of the bank against his counter-claim. The same was studied and our detailed opinion furnished.

(8)    One of our clients has enquired whether counter-claim can be filed after initiation of winding up of the Company. We have rendered proper legal opinion.

 

Brief Report on Interactions during last Mumbai and Delhi visits

    I was in Mumbai and Delhi during the last week 0f Sept. '03. I already had telephone nos. of 160 parties whose cases were going on in DRT. I telephoned them and had interactions. The outcome was as under:-

(1) The parties did not know the importance of counter-claim, they were told about the same. They were asked to visit our web site and study the pages 'Products & Services' and other pages.

(2) The party did not know the importance of our legal opinion, they were told about the same. They were asked to visit our web site and study the pages 'Products & Services' and other pages.

(3) 15 parties came to meet us with their advocates. We elaborated our approach and answered various queries of the advocates.

(4) 3 parties decided to assign their drafting of the counter-claim in form of reply to their DRT cases.

horizontal rule

Interactions with the Clients & Visitors

 

(1) One of our important clients arranged a special Board Meeting wherein their advocate was also present. The following points were discussed:-
(a) Their advocate desired to understand applicability of the Law of Torts in bank cases. I explained the reasons along with the Supreme Court judgments
(b) The client narrated all the facts and desired to know whether they can file damages against the Electricity Board under the Law of Torts. After examining all the relevant and material facts, I found that it was a fit case for suing the said Electricity Board for the damages. This assignment was awarded to us.
(c) Having understood the provisions of the Law of Torts, the said client gave another assignment for suing the insurance company for damages as they did not decide the claim till date.
 

(2) One of visitors of our web site purchased a printed copy of the site and called on us and informed that they have filed a counter-claim of Rs. 200 crores against their bankers.
(a) They discussed the salient features of their damage claim. I described the general principles for preparing such claims, they gave us the assignment to check up and recast their counter-claim.

 

(3) Three parties rang us from Chandigarh, Ludhiana, four from Delhi and six from Mumbai and after one or two telephone calls, four of the said parties assigned us the job of studying their cases to furnish our legal opinion.

 

Gist of other e-mails are as under along with our comments :-

.

(1)     One of the parties have assigned us drafting of a 'Suit for Injunction and Declaration' against an 'Auditing firm' which was chosen by the bank to audit the party. The said auditor prepared a false, maligning and derogatory report against the party in collusion with the bank. This contract has been completed and the suit will be filed.

(2)    Several BIFR parties have approached us for legal opinions and for drafting of counter-claims. Many of the parties desire regular consultancy on phone. Hence we have instituted a special scheme for consultancy on phone.

horizontal rule

Interactions with Mr. Anand Ahuja, Attorney based at New York

   

    Mr. Anand Ahuja owns the legal firm Anand Ahuja Associates, Attorneys At Law and International Business Consultants' having offices at New York, Connecticut, Washington, D.C., Canada and India. His firm primarily focuses on immigration to the USA, business and commercial law, general corporate law, internet and computer law etc. He has represented U.S. and overseas companies and government institutions. He has distinguished team of attorneys. He is now a US citizen with legal education in US and India. He has wide legal experience in US government, legal firms and in various courts. He teaches International Business in various Universities and Schools. He has organized number of seminars and has been a guest speaker in various institutions of management science. He is member of several renowned institutions.

    We came in touch in June 2001 during arrangements for his talk in Indore Management Association. Since then we are interacting to evolve a joint business strategy. We met in Delhi on 22nd July 2002 and had useful interactions. Mr. Ahuja intends to visit India again.

    There are tremendous scope for mutual business activities using the modern e-tools. We are identifying the areas where our strengths will create useful products for the people in US and India

    Mr. Ahuja has agreed to handle NRIs who have pending litigations in India including DRT cases. We have in turn agreed to handle litigations of such parties so that they need not visit India unnecessarily.

      

[Back to Top]

horizontal rule

Interactions with the management of an Industrial House which has borrowed Rs. 324 crores from banks and FIs

 

We had exhaustive session with the said Industrial House. Finally we sent them following fax, which is self explanatory:-

 

DRT Legal Solutions

Attorneys at Law of Torts and Injury Claims

 

Saturday, 09 November, 2002 

To

Mr.

Chairman and Managing Director,

- - - - - - - - -  - - - - - - - - - - - - -Ltd.,

Indore

Dear Mr.- - - - - - - - -, 

This has reference to the interactions which we had recently. My assessment and conclusions are as under:- 

(1) You have not yet finalized your strategy in dealing with the banks and financial institutions. 

(2) You are attracted to use the tools of law and desire interactions with your advocates. Your difficulties are incomplete communication with them. They are not well versed with the vital and material facts about the industrial finance. It is just not possible as numerous complex facts are involved. In fact it is not their area. They role comes only after the trials are over. They apply law on the whole proceedings of the trial with a view to discover faults to help their clients. Our strategy is entirely different. We have a comprehensive and integrated approach right from the beginning to end. We are able to do so on account of our specialized, focussed and expert knowledge. These are the reasons as to why persons like Mr. - - - - . Mr. - - - - , Mr. - - - - and similar other experienced industrialists as well as their advocates are availing of our services.

(3) For the diagnosis we need only the relevant documents such as the correspondence, legal documents including proceedings, balance sheets and annual reports etc. We study, analyze and render our legal opinion. Perhaps your advocates can not do so at this stage. They can however comment on our legal opinion. As informed only after our thorough study we are open for discussions with any authority so long as we are compensated for the cost of our time spent.

 (4) It is suggested that first please study our web site thoroughly, have our study and opinion, ask your advocates to comment on our opinion, use our services for final discussions with them. Our charges for the study are Rs. - - - -. Cost of discussions at Indore at the rate of Rs. - - - - per hour. In future if you decide to assign drafting of counter-claim, the said study fee will be adjusted in the drafting charges. We have wide ranging services as may be seen from the page ‘Products and Services’ of our web site.

(5) As regards advocates, the counter-claims pertaining to Mr. - - -, Mr. - - - - and Mr. - - - are respectively being handled by three different seniour advocates at DRT Jabalpur. These counter-claims are drafted by us and are based on the law of torts. Counter-claims drafted by us will also be filed at DRTs at Mumbai, Delhi and Chandigarh. Accordingly advocates will also be available at these places. We provide very good after sales service to the clients and their advocates when needed during the whole life of the case.

 (6) If you need clarifications, if any on above, please feel free to interact on our off-cum-res. phone 245883 or through e-mail at capexserver@satyam.net.in  Since we have very good online working, place and time is no problem for instantaneous service on various aspects of litigation. At times we have provided useful advice on telephone including citations of latest case laws. Our web site is updated instantaneously if there is any useful information to our clients and visitors.

 Thanking you and assuring of our best attention all the time,

With warm regards to you and your brothers,

Yours sincerely,

Ram Kishan

horizontal rule

[Back to Top]

  

DRT Judgments Favourable to Borrowers and Guarantors – Now Full text of such Judgments is being provided on this Web Site with Important Portions marked in Red  

    

DRT Legal Solutions

 

Attorneys at Law of Torts, Injury and IPR Claims

HomeContentsProducts & ServicesFrequently Asked QuestionsUseful Article-BorrowersUseful Article-GuarantorsRBI GuidelinesNotes-Law of TortsNotes-DamagesMiniArticles-Letters to EditorUseful Interactions with Clients & VisitorsSecuritisation Act-CommentsAbout Us-DRT SolutionsUseful Tips for DRT Advocates|| 138 NI Act Cheque Dishonour Cognizance Acquittal | NCLT, National Company Law Tribunal, BIFR, SICA  |  Video Interview - BS Malik, Sr. Supreme Court AdvocateLegal Forum of IndiaSuccess & Results of Our GuidanceDRT Orders in favour of Borrowers & GuarantorsNPA, Debt due, Rehabilitation of Sick SME IndustriesOur Replies to Queries  on Current DRT Matters, Court Decisions etc.Measure of damages & Calculations under Torts & ContractsVideo Interview - GC Garg, Ex-Senior Bank OfficialSolar Healing, Yoga, Projector, Rebirth etc.Swami Ramdev, Yoga Guru, Cure for All Diseases, Medical Science RevolutionCourt Technologies IT Presentation Video ArgumentsArchiveDRT Solutions Weekly Mail for Borrowers & Guarantors   All India DRT Conference 2011 at IndoreArticle by Ram Kishan on Management & Technology in Indian JudiciarySARFAESI Securitisation Securitization Actar SA NPADRT Judgments Favourable / Useful to Borrowers

 

Contact Information :- Phones (India):- Mobile- +91-969-1103689, Off. & Res. +91-731-4049358,

E-mail - ramkishandrt@gmail.com and ramkishan@drtsolutions.com

Popularity of our web site :- The key word for search of our website is 'drt'  or any phrase commencing with 'drt'  We are on the top in Google Search for 'drt' among 28,60,000 results globally. In most of the search engines like yahoo, msn, google, excite, altavista, mamma, alexa etc., To verify, you may visit www.yahoo.com, www.msn.com, www.rediff.com, www.indiatimes.com, www.altavista.com, www.google.com, www.excite.com, www.hotbot.com, www.123india.com, www.aol.com, etc. Our reference appears in www.economictimes.com, www.amazon.comwww.financialexpress.com, www.lawcrawler.com, www.findlaw.com, www.law.com, www.supremecourtofindia.com, www.supremecourtonline.com

(2) We have created a separate web site www.usindolegal.com which deals exclusively with our US joint venture enterprise for activities like BPO, legal BPO, DRT etc. This site has started appearing in the search results of Google, Mamma, Alexa and Yahoo.

Application of Law of Torts in claiming Damages from Municipal Corporations for demolition of structures, closure of shops etc:- In many parts of the country, the Municipal Corporations are demolishing structures like shops and houses which existed for number of years. The shops existing for number of years are proposed to be shut down. The affected persons should claim Damages under the Law of Torts, which would be substantial. It is learnt that in Delhi itself about 5 lac shops are to be closed down and about 25 lac persons would be out of jobs. All these persons should file damage suits in the civil court. Since the damages would be substantial, the suits may be filed as Indigent Persons. Since the damages would attract interest, the usual delay by the civil courts will not affect the final outcome. The affected shop owners may discuss the details with us on phone.

Our Articles for Borrowers and Guarantors:- Our articles on DRT matters have been published in the Financial Express. The All India Manufacturers Organisation in its famous web site www.aimoindia.org has reproduced copies of our four articles. These original articles can be searched in the archive of the Financial Express in its web site www.financialexpress.com Two of these articles have been reproduced in other pages of this web site. 

Useful link www.WorldVideoBusiness.com :- WorldVideoBusiness-WVB® is a business to business e-marketplace source of international trade leads, and tender opportunities from companies and government organizations around the globe.

About Us in Brief :-  (1) We specialize in DRT (Debt Recovery Tribunal) and NCLT (National Company Law Tribunal) matters. As a whole you may approach us for all DRT Problems and Solutions as well as matters connected with ARCIL i.e. Asset Reconstruction Company (India) Limited,  We have a Joint Venture with an America based law firm for various activities like BPO, legal BPO and DRT. The details of the said American firm and the joint venture may be seen at the page - Our US Joint Venture with Anand Ahuja Associates or in www.usindolegal.com (2) For your all problems including those in DRT, please phone us or send e-mail. Please give your contact details along with your problems in brief. As a whole you may approach us for all DRT Problems and Solutions.  (2) With our Legal Opinion, you need not worry about the Securitisation Act or other DRT matters or NCLT. Please visit the page Products & Services and Frequently Asked Questions (3) On account of our expertise in the Law of Torts and Banking and experience past 15 years, we can help you to submit suitable defence with winning strategy in DRT cases, Securitisation Act, Guarantors' defence etc.  (4) We need only copies of all available documents  to render our expert 'Legal Opinion' which will be quite useful and valuable to you particularly in DRT i.e. Debt recovery Tribunal. (5) We have also handled assignments for preparation of damage claims against Electricity Boards, Insurance Companies, Municipal Corporations etc. all on the basis of the Law of Torts.  (6) The DRT counterclaims is to be prepared well in advance so that it could be raised at proper time in DRT or other forum to safeguard the securities and assets. (7) Several DRT counterclaims drafted by us are being handled by different advocates at DRT Mumbai, DRT Delhi, DRT Jabalpur etc. Thus DRT advocates are available in these cities. Cases in other Debt Recovery Tribunals are under process. (8) This site is updated monthly mostly on every first Monday of the month or for urgent release on any day with latest material. (9) For further details about us, please visit the page About Us-DRT Solutions As a whole you may approach us for all DRT Problems and Solutions. We hail from the place to which Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Acharya Rajnish belong and hence this site is dedicated to them.

Our this web site is dedicated to Yoga Rishi Baba Ramdev Ji Maharaj:- Our this web site is respectfully dedicated to Yoga Rishi Baba Ramdev Ji Maharaj whose method of Pranayam has cured even incurable diseases and thus has revolutionized modern medical science. For further details please visit our special page by clicking here Baba Ramdev Ji Maharaj, Yoga Guru, Cure for All Diseases, Medical Science Revolution

Site also dedicated to:-   (1) Swami Ramdevji, Acharya Balkishan and their Guru Pradumn Maharaj.

                                             (2) H.H. Maharishi Mahesh Yogi and Acharya Rajnish, the greatest gurus of all time www.maharishi.com, www.osho.com

                                           (3) Shri Hira Ratan Manek (HRM) for his pioneering work on Solar healing vide his web site www.solarhealing.com and forum at www.lifemysteries.com                                    

We regularly practice TM and SCI of Maharishi Mahesh Yogi. We also regularly practice Hath Yoga including Pranayam based on Baba Ramdev Ji  Maharaj. We daily watch his global TV program on Astha Channel from 05:30 AM to 8AM and 8PM to 9PM Indian Standards Time. On Sanskar channel, we daily view the discourse of Pradumn Maharaj from 4 AM to 5:30 AM. Many chronic diseases such as Cancer, Parkinsons' disease, Polio, Asthma, Hypertension, diabetes etc. have been cured by the said method of Pranayam which can be learnt even by watching his program on TV. Since 30th March '06, we have started practicing Sun Gazing as prescribed by HRM.

                                    (3) Shri Satyanarayan Morya alias 'Babaji' for his praiseworthy service to our nation. Please visit his site www.artistbaba.com 

Disclaimer:- We have no branch or setup other than at Indore. It is observed that some persons are using name of our firm as well as name of our web site. We have not given  any such authority to anyone to do so. Under such facts and circumstances, if anybody suffers any loss, we shall not be responsible. If such instance comes to notice of someone, we may kindly be informed.

Last Modified:- Please see the top of the Home Page

Copyright © 2001-2021 - DRT Legal Solutions, India. All rights reserved.